Auptimate’s products and services have been designed for a wide variety of people and businesses. The user types below are some of the most common – and are referred to throughout Auptimate’s structuring tool – but we always want to hear from other users that may be interested in our products or services!
User type and description:
This may seem a little obvious, but an ‘Individual Investor’ is an investor that is an individual. In other words, this is an investor that is a human being and not a corporation or some kind of entity or legal arrangement. This type would include people like Angel Investors, High Net Worth Individuals, Accredited Investors and Expert Investors.
A ‘Fund Manager’ is a person or entity regulated in a country to carry on the business of fund management. In Singapore, for example:
- A ‘Fund Manager’ is a Licensed Fund Management Company (LFMC), Registered Fund Management Company (RFMC) or Venture Capital Fund Manager (VCFM) licensed by or registered with the Monetary Authority of Singapore.
- The activity of ‘fund management’ is operating or managing a collective investment scheme, or undertaking on behalf of a customer either the management of a portfolio of capital markets products or the entry into spot foreign exchange contracts for the purpose of managing the customer’s funds. Each country has its own regime to regulate Fund Managers and the carrying on of fund management business. Fund managers launch AuptiFunds to quickly and easily raise money from their investors and efficiently manage their legal, regulatory, compliance and other back-office obligations.
An ‘aspiring fund manager’ is someone that is not yet regulated as a Fund Manager, but intends to become regulated soon. They often launch an AuptiSPV or an AuptiSynd to start making investments and building a track record before raising their first fund. This can be helpful when the time comes to show their potential investors that they can find, close and manage high-quality deals. Sometimes potential fund investors may invest in these initial vehicles.
An ’emerging fund manager’ is someone that satisfies all of the following criteria:
- has been regulated as a Fund Manager for less than 5 years;
- is managing no more than 2 funds; and
- has less than S$250 million in assets under management.
An ‘established fund manager’ is someone that is regulated as a Fund Manager and does not qualify as an Emerging Fund Manager.
A ‘family office’ is an entity which manages assets for a family and is owned by members of that same family. For this:
- the ‘assets’ could include anything, from cash and securities to real estate, yachts and private jets;
- the ‘management’ ranges from simple lifestyle assistance to full discretionary investment management; and
- the ‘family’ could be a small number of closely related members from a single family, or a larger number of extended members from a single family, or even members from multiple unrelated families. The vastly different setups mean no two family offices are the same.
A ‘start-up’ is a business venture that:
- has been incorporated for less than 10 years; and
- does not have any of its interests listed on a stock exchange or central clearing system.
We don’t set any strict rules as to who is a ‘start-up founder’ – so this is entirely up to you!
A ‘start-up founder’ would, however, usually be the person or small group of people who created the business idea and were involve with getting the business venture off the ground.
A ‘project developer’ is a person or entity whose business involves some element of structuring on a project-by-project basis. This would, for example, include:
- A real estate developer that uses a vehicle to own a piece of land, a building or part of a building.
- A renewable energy developer that uses a vehicle to own a renewable energy farm or specific equipment.
- A film or music producer that uses a vehicle to own a specific film or music.
A ‘financial institution’ is an entity that is licensed, authorised, registered or otherwise regulated by a financial regulatory authority. In Singapore, for example, this would include banks, capital markets intermediaries, financial advisers, insurers and payment providers regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. You can easily search the full list of Singapore financial institutions, and regulators in many other countries maintain a similar publicly searchable list on their website.
Technically this user type could include Fund Managers but, for Auptimate’s structuring tool, we treat them separately.
An ‘institutional investor’ is a relatively small group, as it typically means an entity owned or controlled by a country’s central government or its central bank, or by a multilateral agency, international organisation or supranational agency (e.g. the International Monetary Fund or International Finance Corporation).
Technically this user type could include other regulated entities like Fund Managers and Financial Institutions but, for Auptimate’s structuring tool, we treat those separately.